Kakawin Bharata Yudha, buah karya Pujangga Besar Empu Sedah dan Empu Panuluh, yang diselesaikan pada tahun 1157 Masehi pada Zaman Jayabaya di Kediri itu, hingga sekarang masih tetap menjadi pusat perhatian kaum cerdik cendekiawan dan para sarjana dari luar maupun dalam negeri yang ingin memperdalam bahasa serta kesusasteraan Jawa. Isi kakawin tersebut, menceritakan perangnya keluarga Pandawa melawan Kurawa.
Karena kedua belah pihak masih darah daging, yaitu rumpun Bharata Yudha. Kakawin tersebut termasuk kitab Jawa Kuna disusun dengan sekar (puisi) dan (digubah berdasarkan kitab Maha Bharata) yang dikalangan masyarakat Jawa juga dikenal sebagai kitab “Astadasa Parwa“ (18) terdiri dari 18 parwa atau bagian.
Karena buku itu memuat cerita perang, maka isinya untuk sebagian besar adalah soal pertempuran, dengan korban-korban berguguran. Kecuali Kakawin Bharata Yudha sendiri, juga kitab Jawa yang bernama “Adi Parwa“ menyebutkan, bahwa perang besar itu hanyalah berlangsung 18 malam saja. Meskipun demikian menurut cerita itu, korban yang jatuh bukan main besarnya, yaitu 9.539.050 jiwa belum termasuk para panglima perang (senapati) serta korban yang berwujud binatang-binatang pembantu perang seperti gajah, kuda dan sebagainya, menurut kata-kata aslinya jumlah itu ialah: Sangang yuta limang keti, tigang leksa sangan ewu langkung seket.
Pertempuran yang terlama 10 hari, yang tersingkat setengah hari saja. Tadi telah disebutkan, bahwa Kakawin itu menggubah parwa-parwa atau bagian. Adapun yang dipetik oleh Kakawin itu ialah:
1. Udyoga – parwa, babakan ini menceritakan ketika prabu Kresna, penasehat agung Pandawa, melaksanakan tugasnya sebagai Duta Besar Luar Biasa dan berkuasa penuh untuk menyodorkan “Claim“ atas negara Astina kepada sang Kurupati benggol Kurawa yang menduduki negara tersebut.
2. Bhisma – Parwa, menceritakan ketika Resi (Pandita) Bhisma maju memimpin peperangan sebagai panglima besar dari tentara Kurawa. Babakan perang ini berlangsung 10 hari (jadi lebih dari separo lamanya dari perang Bharata Yudha itu sendiri). Akhirnya pandita tersebut gugur karena panah Srikandi, seorang perwira wanita.
3. Drona – parwa, mennceritakan waktu Pandita Drona, penasehat Kurawa memimpin pertempuran sebagai panglima tentara Kurawa. Ia gugur pula, putus lehernya oleh Sang Drestadyumna. Lamanya pertempuran ini 5 hari.
4. Karna – Parwa, menceritakan waktu Sang Karna, panglima perang tertinggi tentara Kurawa maju perang memimpin dan memegang sendiri komando pertempuran. Lama pertempuran hanya 2 hari saja dengan berakhir gugurnya sang Karna karena kesaktian Sang Arjuna.
5. Salya – Parwa, menceritakan ketika Sang Salya, sesepuh Kurawa memimpin pertempuran. Pertempuran hanya berlangsung setengah hari saja dengan berakhir gugurnya sang Salya oleh Puntadewa dengan ajimat Kalimahosadhanya.
6. Gada – Parwa, mengkisahkan waktu Sang Duryudana bertempur melawan Sang Bima. Duryudana menemui kekalahannya karena kena pukul pada betisnya oleh Bima dengan gada yang dinamakan Lohitamuka. Gada ini beratnya bukan alang kepalang karena berkepalakan besi massif. Dalam cerita wayang gada ini sangat terkenal yang oleh Ki Dalang disebut gada “Rujak Polo“ (polo artinya otak). Meskipun Duryudana telah remuk dan cacad, tetapi ia tidak juga mati. Ia telah bersumpah, sebelum mati akan membersihkan telapak kakinya pada kepala-kepala para Pandwa (kesed).
7. Sauptika – parwa, mengkisahkan ketika Aswatama bersama resi Krepa dan Kartamarma sebagai orang-orang Kurawa yang telah kehilangan akal, melakukan serangan pembalasan secara pengecut dengan meninggalkan aturan umum pertempuran. Dengan muslihatnya yang licik itu pada suatu malam mereka telah merunduk ke perkemahan Pandawa dan berhasil membunuh dengan cara yang tidak ksatria perwira-perwira Pandawa serta kelima putra Yudhistira sesepuh Pandawa. Sebagaimana diketahui, malam itu para Pandawa bersama Kresna sedang melakukan anjangsana kedesa-desa. Mereka meninggalkan perkemahan dengan hati yang resah karena memikirkan sumpah Duryudana tadi.
Bharata Yudha Dianggap Keramat di Jawa
Pertunjukan (wayang) dengan cerita Bharata Yudha yang mengasyikkan itu buat masyarakat di Jawa pada umumnya masih dianggap keramat dan tidak boleh dipertunjukkan di sembarang tempat dan waktu. Menurut kepercayaan yang masih tetap berlaku, kalau dilanggar bisa menimbulkan bencana yang tidak diduga-duga. Biasanya lakon Bharata Yudha hanya dipertunjukkan pada saat-saat upacara “bersih desa“ yang hanya berlangsung setahun sekali di desa-desa. Dan pertunjukkan (wayang) itu dilakukan ditengah sawah.
“Bersih Dusun“ atau merti dusun (asal kata Jawa kuno “Pitro“ berarti metathesis. Dengan merti dusun penduduk memberi sesaji kepada roh-roh leluhur, dan adat tata cara merti dusun itu kini tidak lagi terdapat di kota-kota. Dan oleh karena itu, dapat dikatakan bahwa pertunjukan wayang, dengan lakon Bharata Yudha itu hampir tidak pernah dilakukan dikota. (sekarang sudah banyak dipentaskan oleh wayang orang dan disiarkan oleh radio – red)
Bharata Yudah di Bali
Berlainan dengan di Jawa maka Bharata Yudha di Bali tidaklah dianggap keramat dan luar biasa. Disana kitab atau cerita yang dianggap tidak baik akibatnya ialah Serat Kidung Rangga Lawe, yang mengkisahkan memberontaknya Ki Rangga Lawe dari Tuban terhadap keprabuan Majapahit, disamping itu jug kitab-kitab lain seperti cerita Jayaprana, suatu cerita yang hampir mirip dengan cerita Pranacitra untuk masyarakat Jawa. Di Bali kitab Bharata Yudha menjadi bacaan umum, terutama bagi mereka yang memperdalam kesusasteraan. Masyarakat Bali umumnya hafal diluar kepala, kebanyakan bait-bait yang tersurat dalam kitab tersebut, dan oleh karenanya banyak disitir dalam pelbagai percakapan.
Salah satu bait yang sangat populer dari Kakawin itu, ialah bait ke I Sekar Puspatagra, yang diucapkan dengan intonasi khusus pada waktu mereka berjalan mengiring jenazah yang akan diperabukan. Bunyinya bait itu adalah sebagai berikut:
“Ri pati sang Abimanyu ring ranangga, Tenuh araras kadi sewaleng tahan mas, Hanan angaraga kalaning pajang lek, cinacah alindi sahantimun genenten“. Gugurnya Sang Abimanyu dimedan perang, Hancur remuk tetapi malahan nampak indah, bak lumut laut di atas piring kencana ukiran. Sebentar (luka Itu) nampak seperti lubang, keranjang kena sinar rembulan purnama, Terkeping-keping halus bak timun dicacah.
Itulah bait yang sedikit banyak menggambarkan peperangan dengan korbannya dan watak-watak pelakunya. Sebagai tambahan, dibawah ini di kutip lagi bait yang melukiskan keindahan malam serta pemujaan atas seorang wanita. Bagian ini terdapat pada Sekar Sardulawikridita bait ke I:
“Leng leng ramya nikang sasangka kumenyar mangrongga rum ning puri, mangkin tan pasiring halep ikang umah mas Iwir murub ring langit. Tekwan sarwwa manik tawingnya sinawang saksat sekar ning suji, Unggawa Bhanumati yanamron alngo mwang natha Duryudana“. Menggairahkan keindahan bulan purnama raya, menambah indah sinarnya puri, Kian tanpa tanding indahnya wism kencana, bak nyala dilangit. Dan bertahtakan Zamrud memancar laksana untaian kembang, Diditulah sang Ratna Banuwati biasa bercengkarama bersama Sang Duryudana.
Itulah petikan dari Kakawin Bharata Yudha, yang banyak difahami dan diperdalam oleh masyarakat Bali disamping pementasan lakon-lakon dari Bharata Yudha itu sendiri.
The Story Of Bharatayuda
In Java, it is called BHARATAYUDA JAYABINANGUN, a war to end the conflict between PANDAWA and KAURAWA, which where cousins from the same dynasty - BHARATA's. The winners should continue the dynasty ruling over HASTINAPURA Empire. It was an unavoidable war designed by heaven's power to eliminate all evil elements in the world. There were two opposite camps, fighting to ruin each other. But not every person involved directly in the battle, they were exception.
KRESNA by divine decision, was not allowed to involved in direct battle, using his power and weapon to crash KAURAWA, because of this happened, KAURAWA should be melted instantly by powerful KRESNA. He was permitted to act as PANDAWA's advisor and coachman of ARJUNA. DESTARATA and WIDURA remained neutral. BALADEWA did not agree with a war solution, had left the battlefield.
Some elder figures such as BISMA, DURNA, KRIPA, and KING SALYA although they were against DURYUDANA's attitude, due to their own reasons had to join KAURAWA's forces. SENGKUNI and KARNA with full determination also joined to KAURAWA. On the side of PANDAWA were famous KSATRIAS from CEMPALA kingdom such as DRESTAJUNMENA, the woman archer SRIKANDI, from WIRATA Kingdom, UTORO and his brothers - RESI SETO and SANGA, SETYAKI from DWARAWATI. The sons of PANDAWA, the brave and powerful GATOTKACA, ABIMAYU, BAMBANG IRAWAN. Seeing the list of fighters, the war in KURUSETA terrain should be dreadful!.
Dewi Kunti And Karna - The Mother And Son
When both sides were preparing for the war a mother was worried for the destiny of one of her sons, her eldest son. Viceroy KARNA of AWANGGA, was a chief warrior of KAURAWA, going to fight his own brothers - PANDAWA in 'alive or die' battle. She confessed her mistake by not telling KARNA and PANDAWA that they were brothers - her sons. The mother DEWI KUNTI was same as any mother in earth, could not see her own sons going to kill each other. Secretly and decisively he went to see KARNA in his residence.
The viceroy was amazed by her visit, then asked her, "What could a son of coachman do for you, queen KUNTI, the mother of the noble PANDAWA ?". "You are not a son of a coachman, ADIRATA is not your father, your father is God SURYA and your mother is me, KUNTI, who is also the mother of PANDAWA, your own brothers", KUNTI said. Then KUNTI told KARNA the real story. She begged KARNA, in this very critical moment, it was right to leave the bad character of KAURAWA and joined his brothers - PANDAWA who were on the right side.
KUNTI continued, "By joining your brothers PANDAWA, all of you should be a powerful force able to eliminate whatever evil in the world. Please KARNA, my son, or SURYAPUTRA (son of God SURYA), do it as a reflection of your mother's love!". KARNA the brave warrior was shocked to hear this sudden evidence, his senses told him that what KUNTI said was true and he could feel also the approval of God SURYA. After having composed of himself KARNA replied sadly, "What you have asked me, dear mother, is against KSATRIA's character. What you have done to me since I was born had robbed my right of a mother's love. I have eaten the rice of KAURAWA and I have been given position, luxurious life and trusted by them. I have also advised them to go in war, and now all of a sudden, I join PANDAWA. What will people think of me? I have betrayed my trust, I am a traitor!".
Trying not to be emotional he further said, "In respect of your order to me, dear mother, I will not do any harm to PANDAWA in the war, no matter what they are going to do to me. I will not kill them, except to ARJUNA. So PANDAWA will remain five persons, the fifth is either ARJUNA or me. Please apologize me!". DEWI KUNTI could say nothing, then she left after giving him a big hug. She asked to herself, "Who could avoid the fate of life?". She hoped God should bless him.
The Battle In Kurusetra
Resi Bisma - The Great Fighter
On the first day of BHARATAYUDA JAYABIMANGUN, RESI BISMA was appointed by KAURAWA as their commander in chief (SENAPATI), PANDAWA entrusted this duty to DRESTAJUMENA, elder brother of DRUPADI and SRIKANDI. BISMA the grand father of PANDAWA and KAURAWA proudly accepted the position of SENAPATI saying that as a KSATRIA, he should prefer to die in the battlefield than lying in bed with sickness.
Minutes before the war started, YUDISTIRA went to his grand father BISMA alone, kneeling to great him and said, "I apologize that today I have to fight you in this unavoidable war. But I would like to let you know that the big family of PANDAWA love and respect you sincerely. I would like to ask your blessing in this holy war".
The great BISMA almost cried, touching lightly YUDISTIRA head and replied, "Deep in my heart, I always love you PANDAWA and KAURAWA, I am sorry that I have failed to prevent this war and worse I am compelled to join the opposite side due to my commitments to DESTARATA. I don't hesitate that you are on the right side. Fight as a true KSATRIA and you would win. May God bless you".
Then YUDISTIRA did the same thing by visiting KRIPA and SALYA. The war began, BISMA fought as a lion, and the other warriors from both side too. In the first day, from PANDAWA side UTORO and SETO of WIRATA were killed. DURYUDANA was happy. In the third day, after evaluating the situation, with many victims on PANDAWA force, KRESNA advised that BISMA had to be killed right away. ARJUNA was hesitating, how could he killed his own family, guru, in the battle. Should it be better if PANDAWA gave up their demand?
The wise KRESNA advised ARJUNA on morality, ethics of KSATRIA, KARMA, DARMA, etc, among other he said, "Born as KSATRIA, you must be ready at anytime to live and to die on a tip of a weapon. Holy duty of KSATRIA is to serve the country by deflating enemies in the war to win the truth". The advice of KRESNA to ARJUNA during BHARATAYUDA was called BAGAWADGITA.
PANDAWA's forces in the meeting had decided SRIKANDI to lead PANDAWA's army's against BISMA. BISMA upon seeing SRIKANDI tried to avoid her. He knew that his death should be in the hand of a tomboy woman. Although he already knew that, his lifetime was numbered, he fought bravely. Many arrows shot by SRIKANDI, helped by ARJUNA penetrated his old body, finally he felt down (the name of SRIKANDI is very famous in Indonesia. Nowadays, many careers woman in Indonesia with respect are called SRIKANDI INDONESIA).
BISMA dying surrounded by PANDAWA and KAURAWA, he told DURYUDANA, "You are the one who could stop this war. Don't be greedy to your own cousins PANDAWA. As for my self I am dying in piece, I have paid my debts to KAURAWA".
DURYUDANA refused to stop the war, and accused him that BISMA had always on the side of PANDAWA. Then BISMA said to KARNA nicely, "I knew your secret, BATARA (god) NARADA told me that you are the son of BATARA SURYA with DEWI KUNTI, you should take the side of your younger brothers PANDAWA, the real KSATRIAS, fighting for the truth".
KARNA knelt to him respectfully replied, " My respected grand father, with all my love to you, I have to join KAURAWA, who have take good care of me for the whole life. This is the ethic of KSATRIA, I'll sacrifice my life to pay my debts". BISMA whispered slowly, "it is your determination, that is the best way". BISMA death mourned deeply by all fighters. Meanwhile many KAURAWA's brothers had died in the hand of BIMA. PANDAWA had also paid dearly - BAMBANG IRAWAN, a son of ARJUNA died in the heroic battle.
KAURAWA had a new commander in chief, Guru (teacher) DURNA, master of war strategy and skillful fighter. In the thirteenth day, ONGKO WIJAYA or ABIMAYU got killed very cruelly. He was tortured heavily in an uneven battle, beaten by DURNA, ASWATAMA, SENGKUNI, DURSASANA, after being trapped by JAYADRATA. PANDAWA was in mourning, especially ARJUNA, the father of ONGKO WIJAYA. In this sudden moment, came their grand father - ABIYOSO, he told them no need to grieve too deeply, they had to remember the natural law of life and death.
The Death Of Jayadrata
In the following mourning, Arjuna vowed to kill JAYADRATA before sunset. BIMA in anger killed again several brothers of KAURAWA, GATOTKACA showing his ability to fly, hit to dead many enemies' soldiers. BURISRAWA, a strong KAURAWA's supporter was de-headed by SETYAKI's sword.
It was already afternoon, JAYADRATA was always staying far from ARJUNA. JAYADRATA was afraid to fight face to face with ARJUNA. KRESNA shot his mighty CAKRA (arrow with sharp disc head), it is the heirloom of BATARA WISHNU. The effect was surprising, clouds covered the sun. The fighters thought it was already sunset, the battle of today stopped and resumed again for tomorrow. JAYADRATA wanted to spot where was ARJUNA, lifted his head.
ARJUNA had prepared his powerful heirloom - PASOPATI, an arrow given to him from BATARA guru (ARJUNA had used PASOPATI to kill a powerful king giant NIWATA KAWACA, who attacked the kingdom of Heaven). The arrow hit JAYADRATA's neck, his head rolled in the earth and died.
Guru Durna Was Killed In War
KRESNA the great advisor for PANDAWA knew that DURNA was not easy to be defeated, some tactics must be used to weak him. DURNA was a begawan (priest) but his love to his son ASWATAMA had made him taken a wrong decision to side with KAURAWA. KRESNA asked BIMA to kill KAURAWA's elephant by name ASWATAMA (the name was the same as DURNA's son), after that all the soldiers had to shout strongly and repeatedly, "ASWATAMA was dead!".
The thunderous yells were heard by DURNA, he was shocked whether it was true. He decided to ask a confirmation to YUDISTIRA, the man who never lied in his whole life. YUDISTIRA replied the confused DURNA softly, "Yes, ASWATAMA, the strong elephant is dead". The worried DURNA only heard the words 'ASWATAMA - dead'. He was totally demoralized, he could not imagine living without his beloved son ASWATAMA, the one he hoped to continue his aspirations of life. He could not concentrate in battle, as a result he was killed in the hands of DRESTAJUMENA.
Gatotkaca, Son Of Bima
GATOTKACA who had ability to fly was the air force of PANDAWA, his powerful magic blows had victimized a lot of KAURAWA fighters. He led an army of giant from his own kingdom - PRINGGODANI. DURYUDANA was worried to see the storming attacks of GATOTKACA's army. He instructed KARNA to eliminate GATOTKACA immediately, otherwise more and more KARNA's soldiers should die within a short time. KARNA at that time was busy to start a duel fight against ARJUNA. He was the only one in KAURAWA forces who had a heirloom arrow, which could kill ARJUNA. The heirloom's name was KUNTO WIJAYA DANU. KARNA heard a thunderous storm in the sky and a black cloud moving. He knew by instinct that it must be GATOTKACA in action. He shot his KUNTO to that cloud whilst going forward to face ARJUNA.
When baby GATOTKACA was born, his navel could not be cut with any knife. Upon advice from a wise man, the navel was cut by the casing of KUNTO arrow. But the KUNTO's casing penetrated inside his stomach permanently. The fate had predicted that when the arrow KUNTO returned to its casing then GATOTKACA should die. When GATOTKACA was a youngster, by accident he had killed his giant uncle, KALABENDANA. The spirit of KALABENDANA had been waiting to revenge. He knew the fate of GATOTKACA's death in BHARATAYUDA. The shot of KARNA in fact did not hit the target, the arrow KUNTO could not reach GATOTKACA who flied too high. In a very quick move, KALABENDANA's spirit took KUNTO and told him, " You have to return to your casing, I'll help you". So, with the help of KALABENDANA's spirit, KUNTO hit GATOTKACA. GATOTKACA's spirit together with KALABENDANA's went back happily to the eternity.
Adipati Karna Or Suryaputra
He was a very powerful or SAKTI chief warrior, respected highly by friends and enemies. He had a very strong and high position in HASTINAPURA, fully trusted by DURYUDANA. He had no reason at all to complain in his life, he had everything a man should posses; wealth, power, pride, love of his family. Everything seemed to be perfect, if he was a son of coachman. But secret of his personality, which just had been uncovered, by his real mother DEWI KUNTI and BISMA, had moved his emotions.
In the eve of his first day as KAURAWA's commander in chief, ARJUNA secretly visited him. He had the most difficult moment in his life. ARJUNA was his ardent enemy, his competitor in archery, the man he hated most up to now, and at the same time was also his brother. AJUNA suddenly stood in front of him, knelt and greeted him honestly with full of respect and said clearly, "Please accept my sincere respects and PANDAWA's respect to you. I come here to ask your apologies for all which had happened to Our mother, KUNTI send her love for you and also all PANDAWA love you, our eldest brother".
KARNA, upon seeing ARJUNA's attitude could say nothing, he was deeply moved. What he could do was just a slightly nod with tears hanging on his eyes. ARJUNA went on, his heart was beating, "Our brother, YUDISTIRA and all of us, have decided to listen to you as our eldest brother, we will obey your decisions. If we win this war you are the one who become the emperor of HASTINAPURA. We believe that from now on, you will be always with us, your own brothers".
Upon listening and feeling what his brother said, KARNA, the powerful ADIPATI - chief warrior could not overcome his emotions, trying to stop the bursting tears, he embraced ARJUNA firmly. Both of them, the mighty KSATRIAS, who did not recognized the word 'SURRENDER' in battlefields, in reality were only human beings, could only speak with emotion, showing deep love to each other. After a while, both of them were self-composed. KARNA tried to speak calmly, "ARJUNA, my dearest brother, deep in my heart, I love all of you - my PANDAWA brothers and I also do love our mother KUNTI. I am very grateful for your decisions, it's really the most respectable honor for me. I'm telling you that the mistake is mine, as I fight only for my own welfare and happiness and to defend my powerful position, full with material wealth, I have to take the wrong side in BHARATAYUDA. I admit that it's shameful for a KSATRIA", he paused and then continued. "I personally beg you to understand my position, please convey this massage to all my brothers. As for you, ARJUNA, tomorrow don't hesitate to face me in the battle, we'll fight as true KSATRIAS. I'm prepared to be killed to preserve my good name. Use all your skill, use all your power. May God bless you". Then they embraced again each other without a word and ARJUNA asked his permission to leave.
In the next morning, KARNA wore his white dress, impressive and charming. White dress means holy and in fact he was prepared to die. With his sharp authoritative voice, he commanded his troop to be in the formation and ready to attack. KARNA's coachman was KING SALYA. On the other side, ARJUNA sit in his carriage coached by KING KRESNA. KARNA and ARJUNA looked very determent but their hearts were governed by emotions of family love. Should they continue? Coachmen, SALYA and KRESNA knew the feeling of KARNA and ARJUNA and advised them to behave as true warriors. The battles around them had started fiercely. KARNA had just shot his KUNTO arrow to GATOTKACA. His carriage was heading forward to face ARJUNA. They exchanged shootings of many arrows.
All of a sudden, KARNA's carriage was torm to pieces, hit by GATOTKACA's body falling from the sky. He was thrown away. With no carriage he met ARJUNA directly. He was aware that ARJUNA had several heirlooms, which should kill him. But he would be happy to be killed by a mighty, powerful KSATRIA -ARJUNA, his own brother. He was happy that his brothers would be glorious rulers in HASTINAPURA, not the mad DURYUDANA. At that time, the heirloom arrow of ARJUNA - PASOPATI hit him, and KARNA felt down, killed heroically in the battle. His death was mourned deeply by KAURAWA and PANDAWA. Although KARNA had fought for KAURAWA but as the eldest brother of PANDAWA, PANDAWA family with full heroic ceremony held the incineration of his body.
King Salya, The Senopati Of Kaurawa
King SALYA, in his heart he preferred to be with PANDAWA, but he was trapped by DURYUDANA in such a way so that he had to join KAURAWA. He fought with all his strength, he had a powerful spell (AJI) called 'CANDRA BIRAWA'. When he spelled the mantra (AJI) a lot of giants came out from his ears, and killed a lot of PANDAWA's soldiers. PANDAWA forces were deteriorated. Again, the wise KRESNA knew his secret. The only man who could face him was YUDISTIRA, considered as the holiest man of all the people. He was honest, kind-hearted and never lied.
The CANDRA BIRAWA giants, would not attack if it was not attacked, they did only counter-attack. When SALYA spelled CANDRA BIRAWA, it was only one giant appeared, but if this giant was killed then he would became two life giants, two would became four and then sixteen, etc. They would multiply themselves to be hundreds and thousands of giants. The soldiers who were counter-attacked by CANDRA BIRAWA giants should be death definitely, their whole blood were sucked.
YUDISTIRA was a man who did not like to fight, he should meet SALYA but instructed by KRESNA not to attack the CANDRA BIRAWA giants. The giants were confused, they did not know what to do, in facing a passive man. The giants soon reduced their total numbers. From 1000 giants became 10 and then became 1, the original CANDRA BIRAWA giant.
The CANDRA BIRAWA went back into the ears of the owner. SALYA had to fight without the help of his spell, he was getting tired as he was an old man. When YUDISTIRA released his heirloom JAMUS KALIMOSODO, SALYA had not enough power to defend himself, he got killed right away.
The Death Of Duryudana
After SALYA's death, there was no alternative for DURYUDANA to lead the KAURAWA himself. He was alone now, all his loyal friends and warriors had been killed. He was rather dying himself than suffering to live together with PANDAWA. He ran to nearby river but chased by BIMA, then fought by using big GADA (bludgeons). Each fighter, full with anger and hatred, wanted to kill his enemy as quickly as possible. DURYUDANA did not surrender easily, although he had no hope for the future anymore. KRESNA showed the weakness point of DURYUDANA and told BIMA what to do. BIMA hit DURYUANA's thigh with his big GADA RUJAKPALA. DURYUDANA collapsed and could not move anymore. He was dead in agony. The evil king or the king of evil at last died.
BHARATAYUDA was over now, the good and the truth had defeated the evil, the greediness. The price of this glorious day was too heavy for PANDAWA, in HASTINAPURA lived a lot of widows and orphans. In the night after the war was considered over, The son of DURNA - ASWATAMA, together with KRIPA and KARTAMARMA, treacherously slip into PANDAW's camp. Then killed some PANDAWA's family and then burned the camp and ran away hiding in the forest. DRUPADI saw who had done dishonest killing. The following morning, they were captured by PANDAWA and eliminated.
Yudistira, Emperor Of Hastinapura
There were no more obstacles for YUDISTIRA to govern the country wisely. HASTINAPURA was a prosperous and peaceful country, respected highly by its neighbors and maintained good relation with other countries. DESTARATA and GENDARI, the parent of KAURAWA, lived together with KUNTI, the mother of PANDAWA. They were treated honorably by PANDAWA and always been respected as their own parents. All the PANDAWA's sons were dead in BHARATAYUDA, to some extent, the death of all PANDAWA's son was ARJUNA's mistake. He had successfully helped God GURU by killing a giant king NIWATAKAWACA who menaced to ruin SURALAYA, the God palace. God NARADA, in the name of God Guru, had given him a Goddess - SUPRABA to marry, besides he was promised by NARADA that BATARA GURU should grant him whatever a request he made. ARJUNA, accompanied by SEMAR, spontaneously replied, he wished that after the BHARATAYUDA all PANDAWA remained alive. This request was agreed by NARADA.
SEMAR was shocked to hear the conversation. He told ARJUNA that when a man asking something from God, it should be clearly and precisely. In that case ARJUNA should ask for the life of PANDAWA and their children, not only for PANDAWA. But the deal was done, the fate should prove. Luckily PANDAWA had one descendant, the grand child of ARJUNA, PARIKESIT, the son of the late ABIMAYU and UTARI. PARIKESIT was the crown prince of HASTINAPURA. DESTARATA and GENDARI after living honorably with PANDAWA for several years, decided to live as hermits in a lovely place to donate the rest of their life for SAMADI (meditation), DEWI KUNTI as sign of solidarity joined them. PANDAWA in tears respected this decision as it was in accordance with the teaching of DARMA.
Parikesit, The New Emperor Of Hastinapura
After almost three decades in power, in the situation of relatively - peaceful and prosperous, PANDAWA decide to resign from public life. The crown prince PARIKESIT had been educated properly with PANDAWA themselves as his teachers, considered mature enough to rule the country. Also the younger generation, as a result of a wise and proper training was ready to live in harmony. The PANDAWA's generation, their loyal and respected friends like KRESNA and his families had already passed away. So, it was the time also for PANDAWA to leave all matters related with life in the world.
PARIKESIT had received all the knowledge previously mastered by PANDAWA. In short, he knew and should practice the three DARMA, consist of:
1. DARMANING PENDITO UTOMO
Darma : a good teaching or way of life
Pendito : a priest, a saint, dedicated his entire life to God Almighty, for a perfect an correct behavior and action
Utomo : a perfect and correct behavior and action; a first class quality.
Meaning : he had to think and do as a good PENDITO.
2.DARMANING RATU GUNG BINATORO
Ratu : King or queen
Gung : From AGUNG -great
BINATORO : From BATORO -God, a very honorable god's behavior.
Meaning : He had to think, consider and do like a great respected king. Must be just and wise.
3. DARMANING SATRIO WIROTOMO
Satrio : a title of nobility: knight, in ordinary life: gentleman. Satrio is always considered of a man with noble quality, well educated, having good conduct and behavior.
Wiro : dare, not afraid.
Meaning : He had to think and act using his brains. He must be polite and
knew what's right and wrong. He must work hard and always ready to defend the truth, combating the evil at whatever cost.
In Javanese life, the position of PENDITO (begawan, resi, priest, saint) and RATU (king or queen and all noble family) are considered very respected, even close to divine quality. So, all their words and deeds are considered right. They are called the PANUTAN, the one that should be followed and obeyed. A Javanese proverb says: SABDO PENDITO RATU means that everyone who has said or promised something must fulfill or honor it. Nowadays, a real leader, must posses the three DARMA, following the example of the WAYANG KULIT philosophy. PARIKESIT was inaugurated as the new Emperor to continue the ruling of PANDAWA dynasty, guided by the holy principles of three DARMA.
Pandawa Return To Where They Came From
PANDAWA together with DRUPADI having satisfied with their life in earth, voluntarily and consciously left the palace compound. Walking to purify their souls they went to mount MAHAMERU (SEMERU). The top of this mountain was considered sacred, a place next to heaven where holy Gods live. That was an episode full with spiritual teaching. PANDAWA they were five - YUDISTIRA, BIMA, ARJUNA, NAKULA and SADEWA, but in fact symbolizing the life of a person with the five senses, DRUPADI symbolizing the real feeling of a man.
In their existence of life, PANDAWA had always together, they could not be separated one by the others, in good or in bad situation. If one of them was separated, PANDAWA's should not be in balance. This reflects the life of a person as a whole. In this journey to eternity, one by one of them felt down and disappeared. At first, DRUPADI, symbols of human life and feeling, the latest was YUDISTIRA or PUNTADEWA or DARMAKUSUMA, the holder of the kingdom (of life), the leader of the other four brothers (four senses). He was seriously (SUSETYO) leading the others four.
The second was BIMA, who strongly and determinedly (SANTOSA) protecting PANDAWA. The third was ARJUNA, who was alert to keep the truth (BENER). The fourth was NAKULA, who was clever and skillful. No goal could be reached without a skill (PINTER). And the fifth was SADEWA, who always accomplished everything with the principle at high morality (SUSILA & TATAKRAMA). A human being has to pass the above symbols in his life on this earth. In short he must have a holy heart, doing right & correct things, patient, polite, love others, never hurt others, so that he live safely. In order to reach the condition of holiness, in preparation to be the united again with his holy origin (from where he came from before his birth). Sometimes a man needs to be in solitude, where he should practice self-denial, with limited food, sleep, sex and should not speak over the bad conducts of other people and should not torture animals.. That kind situation should enlighten him to kill all of desires of five senses and oppress his lust. He should be able more easily to concentrate in SAMADI (meditation).
To achieve this holy goal, the soul purity, the meditator has to kill all the desires of lucrative food and material wealth as well as bad or wrong or sinful hearth's wishes. PANDAWA had solemnly do that to achieve pure reflection or reality of holy life. In the gate of heaven, God INDRA, the ruler of heaven and God, YAMADIPATI, who was authorized to snatch human soul from his body, stopped PUNTODEWO. They forbid PUNTODEWO to enter the heaven by bringing his ugly dog. If he insisted to bring it then he would enter the hell. PUNTODEWO was firm, he would not leave his dog, the ugly dirty creature, as his dog was loyal till the end. Suddenly the dog vanished and turned out to be god DARMA, his own spiritual father, who would like to test PUNTODEWO.
After passing the gate, PUNTODEWO was in the dark place, uncomfortable and sting, joining his PANDAWA families. From that place, he could see the KAURAWA lived in the beautiful palace, surrounded with a garden full of flowers and birds. They were eating, drinking, talking with a big smile. He was surprised and shocked how could it happen with him and his family. After several days, he was approached by Gods and Goddesses that he would be transferred to live in heaven by joining KAURAWA, living the other PANDAWA and family behind. He rejected the offer completely.
At last PUNTODEWO had passed the whole test, and he and other PANDAWA and family all of a sudden saw light and lived in heaven like they deserved. PANDAWA was thrown to the darkness of hell before living in a bright heaven, It was meant to give a lesson to human beings that he or she should suffer before enjoying a good life. Heaven is the holiest place, which only the creator - God Almighty could give permission to live in, is a place preserved for holy souls of good people. The basic philosophy of PANDAWA's journey life is: SANGKAN PARANING DUMADI.
Sangkan : the origin where it comes from
Paran : the destination where it goes
Dumadi : Human being
Above all WAYANG KULIT reflecting in God, in eternal life and supernatural. A life of human beings by the wish and decision of God Almighty originates from holy things, by birth should perform his or her duty properly in the world, and if not fails, should return to his or her holy origin again.